THERE IS A TOTAL OF SIX DISCUSSION RESPONSE. PLEASE RESPOND TO EACH WITH ONE TO TWO PARAGRAPHS.

THERE IS A TOTAL OF SIX DISCUSSION RESPONSE. PLEASE RESPOND TO EACH WITH ONE TO TWO PARAGRAPHS.

Cynthia Green

Week Two, Discussion 1

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Week Two, Discussion 1

Question 1: Selective Attention:

According to Berger (2012) selective attention is being capable of focusing on some stimuli while ignoring and tuning out other stimuli. In children, selective attention improves around the age of seven. This development is important for the reason that in a classroom, children need to be about to listen to the teacher while ignoring other distractions. Furthermore, Berger (2012) points out that attention involves the brain function of alerting, orienting, and executive control.

Nutritional factors and environmental factors influence brain development. Rosales et al (2009) indicates “nutrition is an environmental factor as it represents access to resources from the environment (i.e. food and water)” (p.191). Brain growth and development in children require a higher need for nutrients such as choline, folic acid, iron, zinc and special fats (Rosales et al, 2009).

The effects of family stress can also have an influence on a child’s behavior and attention. When parents are under emotional, financial, or other forms of stress, it can alter their children’s patterns of genetic activity at least through adolescence and perhaps longer. Prolonged stress in young children can slow, or even stop, both brain development and physical growth. Prolonged exposure to cortisol released during the stress response can cause long-term damage to the developing brain, and can negatively affect the immune system.

References

Berger, K. S. (2012). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (9th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Rosales, F. J., Reznick, J. S., & Zeisel, S. H. (2009). Understanding the role of nutrition in the brain and behavioral development of toddlers and preschool children: identifying and addressing methodological barriers. Nutritional Neuroscience, 12(5), 190–202. Retrieved from https://nuls.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=44035373&site=ehost-live

20 hours ago

Joseph Areyano

Week 2 Discussion 1

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Selective attention is the ability to concentrate or focus on one particular object for a period of time. Selective attention can be controlled. Some say that meditation can help keep an individual focused when their mind starts to wander off by taking deep breaths and focusing on your breathing to bring yourself back into focus. Selective attention can also be enhanced through experience. The more experience you have the more knowledge we have to pick up on more valuable information. (Improving Selective Attention 2012)

Children sometimes focus on the least important tasks. Sometimes they are more focused on a game rather than the more important task. Although they are focused, they are focused on the less important task. Trying to pull a child away from whatever it is they have their focus on, can cause kids to throw tantrums, cry, scream etc. which now becomes disruptive to the class.

Studies have shown that when children have a balanced diet, they pay more attention in class and are more alert. A poor diet that consists of mainly sugar foods, causes kids to be more hyperactive and later more sluggish. Children are less likely to be disruptive in class with a more balanced diet.

Stress in the home can affect a child’s attention greatly. If coming from a single parent home, most likely the stresses are financial and the child could be neglected due to the fact that maybe the single parent works long hours to make ends meet. With financial stresses comes the lack of a balanced diet which affects a child’s attention in school.

My son once went through a phase where he would be stuck watching anything to do with dinosaurs. He could sit and zone in on shows or movies but when it came down to learning anything else, it was a struggle. We had to buy books and other learning material that had dinosaurs in it and it worked. He eventually grew out of it and did really well in school but for that span of time when he was 5/6 years old. It was a good thing and bad but what always impressed me was the amount of knowledge he had of these reptiles. He knew names of dinosaurs that I have never heard of.

Cherry, K., & Gans, S. (n.d.). How We Use Selective Attention to Filter Information and Focus. Retrieved fromhttps://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-selective-attention-2795022

Improving Selective Attention. (2012, May 16). Retrieved from https://healthymemory.wordpress.com/2012/05/16/improving-selective-attention/

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2 hours ago

Minnie Farrish

Selective Attention

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Selective attention is, “the ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others” (Berger, 2012, p. 333). In other words, selectively absorbing and reacting to certain stimulations while multiple are occurring at the same time. The article, “Theories of Selective Attention” uses the analogy of a bottleneck to explain the process of selective attention. The thicker end of the bottle neck is the exposure of numerous stimulations and as these stimulations travel though the bottleneck to the smaller end, where you would drink out of, stimulations are weeded out leaving only a few that a person focuses their attention on at that given time (McLeod, 2018). This process comes automatic to most individuals; these individuals often times choose what stimulations to pay attention to and at what time. They are able to control what their mind focuses on. On the other hand, selective attention is not automatic of other individuals. These individuals who struggle with the process automatic selective attention are unable to choose what they want to focus on and how they react to these stimulations. When the process of selective attention is not automatic, a medical diagnosis of ADD, ADHD, or autism may be present. Autism involves three brain function: “alerting, orienting and executive control” (Berger, 2012, p. 334)

When selective attention is not automatic, and children struggle to control what stimulations they focus their attention on will sometimes result in a child feeling frustrated and ultimately acting out. Sometimes, these children know what they should be doing however are just unable to do it in the moment. As adults, we may become frustrated with this behavior which can make the situation ever worse because in the child’s mind he/she is doing his/her very best. I believe that at some point in time, all children and even adults struggle with selective attention. While working on homework with my daughter, there are multiple times that she chooses to focus her attention on something other than the homework she has in front of her. I will give her a few warnings of taking away whatever it is she is focusing on if she doesn’t focus on her homework and complete it. This ultimately results in me being frustrated which causes her to become frustrated and upset. She’s been at school all day doing school work and she does not understand why she has to continue doing school work when she gets home with all of the distractions of toys, her sister, dogs, and parents around her. When she gets in trouble for not focusing it causes her to become sad and sometimes causes her to shut down.

Many individuals believe that vaccines can result in certain learning and behavioral disorders such as: ADD, ADHD and autism which can affect a child’s ability to have automatic selective attention. However, not all deficiencies in selective attention are because of medically diagnosed learning or behavioral disorders; regardless of the disorders cause. Unideal situations at home can also result in a child struggling with selective attention. Situations such as: divorce, death, moving, change in family dynamic, new siblings, physical and mental abuse, and many other factors can affect the process of selective attention in a child. Nutrition is also a key factor in the process of automatic selective attention. If a child is malnourished, he/she may struggle to focus on what he/she is supposed to, due to feeling overly hungry. On the other end of the spectrum, if a child is full of foods that is not giving him/her proper nutrients and too much sugar, the child may be so hyper that focusing, sitting still, and listening is not an option. These same situations and factors can also affect the process of selective attention in adults as well. From now on, when I notice my child or any child struggling to focus, I will begin by starting a conversation with the child asking what he/she is thinking about or feeling to insure the child is not struggling with one of these situations listed above.

Berger, K. S. (2012). Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan Learning.

McLeod, S. (2018, October 24). Theories of Selective Attention. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/attention-models.html

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1 day ago

Ilima Tavares

week 2 post 2

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Body image for adolescences can be overwhelming at times. I remember feeling awkward and embarrassed in my ‘new’ and changing body.I would hide in baggy T-shirts and felt totally out of place with the kids my age around me at school because I matured faster than the girl my age. This is a part of puberty. Puberty is something we all go through. Berger states that,“ the forces of puberty are unleashed by a cascade of hormones that produce external growth and internal changes, including heightened emotions and sexual desires.” Puberty normally starts between the ages of 8 and 14. (Berger. 411).

In adolescence, body image can be very distorted. Adolescents are experiencing all kids of changes both physically and emotionally. One reason body image can be distorted, according to Berger, is that few teenagers welcome every change in their bodies. This distortion can cause poor nutrition in adolescents and teenagers. Sometimes even eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia will occur. Girls will diet because they want to be thinner, and boys want to become taller and stronger.

Another reason body image can be distorted is because of the media. Teenagers in every nation are bombarded by the media and how they ‘think’ they should look. Celebrities with their ‘perfect’ bodies are in front of our adolescents and it’s hard at times to feel happy with your own body. Young adolescents wish their bodies looked different, and teenagers tend to lie about their bodies, such as their weight and height (Berger. 421).

Brain development plays a role in body distortion too. The textbook states, “young brains have both fast-growing synapses and sections that remain unconnected” (Ruder, 2008, p.8). The brain develops unevenly, and as a result, adolescents are fast and fearless. This can cause trouble, or may benefit society depending on the individual and their decisions.

Berger, K. S. (2012). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (9th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

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Week Two, Discussion 2

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Week Two, Discussion 2

Why is body image particularly likely to be distorted in adolescence?

Gutiérrez-Maldonado et al (2010) describes body image distortion as “the inability to perceive body size accurately” (p.522). Adolescents around the word wish their bodies had a different appearance (Berger, 2012). As a result of this type of thinking, many adolescents develop eating disorders. Gutiérrez-Maldonado et al (2010) researched what influences eating disorders in 193 students randomly selected. Their study indicated “evidence of a close relationship between social anxiety and eating disorders” (p.526). Furthermore, they found evidence in certain social situations such as walking past a group of attractive people on the beach, heightens levels of dissatisfaction. However, there are lower levels of dissatisfaction in everyday situations such as talking with a group of close friends. This can be explained using Erikson’s psychosocial Idea of Identity vs. Role Confusion. Adolescents are trying to figure out and establish who they are. Another social influence is media images. Teenagers and adolescents are exposed to these images of attractive people everyday.

In addition, Berger (2012) points out, “hormones of puberty awaken sexual interest, both sexes become less happy with their own bodies and more superficial in their evaluation of the other sex” (p.421). Age and puberty can influence adolescence perception of body image. Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Teenagers’ bodies are undergoing so many changes that it is easy to understand why they may be preoccupied with their appearance and their body image. Both boys and girls are experiencing growth spurts and sexual development. Berger (2012) also notes that the only aspect of pubertal timing of importance is when the adolescent’s peers reach puberty. One’s status with peers is directly affected by their body changes during this stage of development (p.418).

References

Berger, K. S. (2012). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (9th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J., Ferrer-García, M., Caqueo-Urízar, A., & Moreno, E. (2010). Body Image in Eating Disorders: The Influence of Exposure to Virtual-Reality Environments. CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 13(5), 521–531.https://doi-org.nuls.idm.oclc.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0301

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10 minutes ago

Jennifer Trento

Week 2 Discussion 2: Body Image

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As kids enter into their teenage years, very few of them will accept the changes that are happening to their bodies making them less happy about their outer appearances and more judgmental of the appearance of others of the opposite sex. Body image dissatisfaction occurs from early adolescence and increased until age 15 or so (Berger, 2012). A worldwide longitudinal study in Korea found that for 10 year old girls and 15 year old boys, as body dissatisfaction increased, so did thoughts of suicide and depression.

Peer pressure in school can also be a cause of body distortion. They see other kids in school and compare themselves to each other focusing primarily on their insecurities. Berger states that teenagers, mostly girls, will eat erratically or ingest drugs (especially diet pills) to help them lose weight and boys will then turn to steroids to increase on muscle mass. which in turn will cause eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa due to unhealthy eating habits because they want to be thin. Eating disorders are rare at a young age, but tends to increase dramatically at puberty (Berger, 2012).

Because of social media, girls boys think that the ideal body type is tall and thin. Teenagers tend to lie about their bodies–adding 3 inches and subtracting 4 pounds on average , with the boys doing more adding and the girls more subtracting (Brener et al., 2003).

Berger, K. S. (2012). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (9th ed.).

New York, NY: Worth Publishers

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