Proofread Research task

Proofread Research task

Running head: 1

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The Examination of Test Anxiety and Performance.

Test anxiety is a reaction to stimuli which is associated with an individual experience during a testing or evaluation situation. Anxiety is an invasive motivational state that takes place in a situation where the level of perceives threat to an individual is high. Anxious individuals are an overachiever, they spend more times worrying about the threat to the current goal, and hence they use strategies to reduce the effect of anxiety to accomplish their goals. Anxiety is vital in the field of cognition and performance; it is connected with the adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks (Derakshan & Eysenck, 2009).

The focus of this study is to examine whether preparedness effect cognitive test anxiety on academic test performance. Test-taking requires a cognitive function such as memory and attention. Anxious individuals lack the ability to stay focus, which affects performance. According to Eum and Rice, empirical findings have reported that high levels of cognitive test anxiety are negatively related to global indices for academic performance, such as scores on standardized achievement tests, grades, and overall grade point average.

Fear of failure, anxiousness, overdetermined and lack of concentration are common distractions for test anxious people, particularly in evaluation situation. Eum and Rice study illustration that test anxious student performed worst on recalled task and overall academic achievement. They further elaborated the perfectionistic student also exhibit fear of failure and concerns about mastering the material and experience anxiety but there was no relationship between anxiety and adaptive perfectionism noted. Rogaten, Moneta & Spada (2013), established that positive affect correlated positively with all measure of academic performance whereas negative affect correlated negatively with all measure of academic performance. A study done by (McGregor and Elliot 2002), on goal achievement illustrated that performance-approach goals were positive predictors of anticipatory challenge construal’s and affect and grade aspirations; but, contrary to our hypotheses, these goals were unrelated to anticipatory threat understandings and effect. We suspect that the reason for this null result is the anticipatory nature of the appraisal assessment.

While cognitive function such as the ability to stay focus plays an in test performance, a study by Mc Mahoni, concentrated on student with detailed knowledge, limited knowledge and no-knowledge, illustrated that grade point average of the student with detailed knowledge was higher than of groups of students who had either incomplete knowledge or no knowledge. The result of this study shows that student who has knowledge or preparation before the test performed better than that of limited or no- knowledge whereas the result from the Eum and Rice states that even perfectionistic student suffers from some of the test anxiety, but their performance did not differ.

A research done by (Brown & Tallon 2015), attests the completing pre-lecture quizzes significantly increase student exam performance, the student completed pre-lecture quizzes felt better prepared and less anxious during exams. While preparedness helps improve test performance study done by Owens, Stevenson, Hadwin, and Norgate (2014), demonstrate that low working memory capacity, increases in trait anxiety were related to decreases in cognitive test performance. Test anxiety reduces working memory process, leading to lower cognitive performance. Good performance is not based on study skills, knowledgeability; trait anxiety can affect working memory in children and adults.

Method

The participants in this study will consist of 60 college freshmen from Kennesaw State University, (30 women, 30 men). All participants will be 18 years of age or older. Undergraduates in a lecture-based introductory psychology class at KSU for the study in return for extra course credit. Participants will be told at the beginning of the course that evaluation is based on a normative grading structure and that the course examinations consisted of multiple-choice.

Materials

Sixty (30 men and 30 women) undergraduates in a lecture-based introductory psychology class at KSU will participate in the study in return for extra course credit. Participants will be informed at the beginning of the course that evaluation would be based on a normative grading structure and that the course examinations would consist of multiple-choice questions. 20 participants will be given study guides and practice test two weeks prior to the first examination, the second group of participants will be given study guide one week without practice test before the exam and the third group will just have no study guide or practice test with only 3 days’ notice.

One week prior to the first exam, participants were provided with a questionnaire regarding their challenge and fear and worries while studying. Participants will be asked to complete the questionnaire after they finished their studying for an exam and turn it in the day of the exam. Participants will also be given questionnaire immediately after exam relating to study technics used while preparing for the exam.

Design and Procedure

Participants will be given a consent form prior to the conduct of the study. The examination will last only an hour. The participant will be randomly assigned to groups. Gender and race will not differ but each group will have equal genders. For example, if group one has 20 participants 10 will be male and the other 10 will be female. Students were randomly selected during the second week of the semester to the following groups; (a) study guide with practice exam group, and (b) study guide with no practice exam group and (c) not study guide or practice exam. All assignments and exams related to material from the textbook and the lectures. The examination will include 40 multiple questions from a General Psychology course. The student will be given one hour to answer the question on a scantron. with number 2 pencils.

Analysis Plan

The primary reason for this research is to investigate whether the level of preparedness before exam effect test anxiety. The study will focus on cognitive appraisals and self-regulatory processes hence absorption in study material or procrastination during preparation for an impending exam. An alpha level of .05 will be set as the criterion for significance.

The One-Way ANOVA – one IV with more than 2 level with independent measures will be used to study the level of preparedness for all three groups on the total amount to correct answers. The DV is the level of preparedness with the three groups before given the test and the IV is the anxiety level of each group during the exam. The IV is more related to my study which is the level of the anxiety of each group. The performance of each group after the manipulation represent my DV. An alpha level of 0.05 2ill is used for the statistical test if the result of the One-Way ANOVA is significant. A post-hoc test will be conducted to determine the differences between the conditions.

References

Brown, M. J., & Tallon, J. (2015). The Effects of Pre-Lecture Quizzes on Test Anxiety and Performance in a Statistics Course. Education, 135(3), 346–350.

Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance: New developments from attentional control theory. European Psychologist, 14(2), 168–176. https://doi-org.proxy.kennesaw.edu/10.1027/1016-9040.14.2.168

Eum, K., & Rice, K. G. (2011). Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 24(2), 167–178.

McGregor, H. A., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Achievement Goals as Predictors of Achievement-Relevant Processes Prior to Task Engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 381.

McMahon, M. P. (1973). Effects of knowledge of ability test results on academic performance and test anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 20(3), 247–249.

Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2014). When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity. British Journal of Psychology, 105(1), 92–101.

Rogaten, J., Moneta, G. B., & Spada, M. M. (2013). Academic performance as a function of approaches to studying and affect in studying. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 14(6), 1751–1763.

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