Educating Special Needs Students /Education


Educating Special Needs Students /Education

Chapter 9 Notes

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

1. Identify the major components of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) definition and classification system for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

· There are significant limitations in intellectual abilities

· There are significant limitations in adaptive behavior as ex-pressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.

· Disability originates before the age of 18.

· The severity of the condition is tempered by the individual’s participation, interactions, and social roles within the com-munity; by her or his overall physical and mental health; and by the environmental context.

· Classification for severity of the condition may be described in terms of mild, moderate, severe, or profound intellectual disabilities.

· Educability expectations as a classification are designated for groups of children who are educable and children who are trainable.

· Medical descriptors classify intellectual disabilities on the basis of the origin of the condition (e.g., infection, intoxication, trauma, chromosomal abnormality).

· Classification based on the type and extent of support needed categorizes people with intellectual disabilities as having intermittent, limited, extensive, or pervasive needs for support to function in natural settings,

2. What is the prevalence of intellectual disabilities?

· The prevalence of intellectual disabilities world-wide and across all ages is estimated at 1 percent of the total population.

· There are approximately 600,000 students between the ages of 6 and 21 labeled as having intellectual disabilities and receiving service under IDEA. Approximately 10 percent of all students with disabilities between the ages of 6 and 21 have intellectual disabilities.

· Overall, students with intellectual disabilities constitute about 0.88 percent of the total school population.

3. Identify intellectual, self-regulation, and adaptive skills characteristics of individuals with intellectual disabilities

· Intellectual characteristics may include learning and memory deficiencies, difficulties in establishing learning sets, and inefficient rehearsal strategies

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Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

· Self-regulation characteristics include difficulty in mediating or regulating behavior.

· Adaptive skills characteristics may include difficulties in coping with the demands of the environment, developing inter-personal relationships, developing language skills, and taking care of personal needs.

4. Identify the academic, motivational, speech and language, and physical characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities.

· Students with intellectual disabilities exhibit significant deficits in the areas of reading and mathematics.

· Students with mild intellectual disabilities have poor reading mechanics and comprehension, compared to their same-age peers.

· Students with intellectual disabilities may be able to learn basic computations but be unable to apply concepts appropriately in a problem-solving situation.

· Motivational difficulties may reflect learned helplessness—“No matter what I do or how hard I try, I will not succeed.”

· The most common speech difficulties involve articulation problems, voice problems, and stuttering.

· Language differences are generally associated with delays in language development rather than with the bizarre use of language

· Physical differences generally are not evident for individuals with mild intellectual disabilities because these intellectual disabilities are usually not associated with genetic factors

· The more severe the intellectual disabilities, the greater the probability of genetic causation and of compounding physiological problems.

5. Identify the causes of intellectual disabilities.

· Intellectual disabilities are the result of multiple causes, some known, and many unknown. The cause of intellectual disabilities is generally not known for individuals with mild intellectual disabilities.

· Causes associated with moderate to profound intellectual dis-abilities include sociocultural influences, biomedical factors, behavioral factors, and unknown prenatal influences.

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Chapter 9 Notes Page 3

Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

6. Why are early intervention services for children with intellectual disabilities so important?

· Early intervention services are needed to provide a stimulating environment for children to enhance growth and development.

· Early intervention programs focus on the development of communication skills, social interaction, and readiness for formal instruction.

7. Identify five skill areas that should be addressed in programs for elementary-age children with intellectual disabilities

· Motor development skills

· Self-help skills

· Social skills

· Communication skills

· Academic skills

8. Identify four educational goals for adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

· To increase the individual’s personal independence

· To enhance opportunities for participation in the local community

· To prepare for employment

· To facilitate a successful transition to the adult years

9. Why is the inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities in general education settings important to an appropriate educational experience?

· Regardless of the severity of their condition, students with intellectual disabilities benefit from placement in general education environments where opportunities for inclusion with nondisabled peers are systematically planned and implemented.

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Chapter 9


Intellectual Disabilities: Limited ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience.

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) Professionals involved in the study and treatment of intellectual disabilities. Became the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in 2006

Standard deviation A statistical measure of the amount that an individual score deviates from the average.

Adaptive behavior Conceptual, social, and practical skills that people have learned to function in their everyday lives.

Principle of normalization Making the patterns and conditions of everyday life and of mainstream society available to people with disabilities.

Developmental disabilities Mental and/or physical impairments that limit substantial functioning in at least three areas of major life activity.

The ARC of the United States A national organization that works to enhance the quality of life for people with intellectual disabilities

Natural supports Supports for people with disabilities that are provided by family, friends, and peers.

Generalization The process of applying previously learned information to new settings or situations.

Self-regulation The ability to regulate one’s own behavior.

Learned helplessness Refusal or unwillingness to take on new tasks or challenges, resulting from repeated failures or control by others.

Articulation problems Speech problems such as omissions, substitutions, additions, and distortions of words.

Voice problems Abnormal acoustical qualities in a person’s speech.

Stuttering A speech problem involving abnormal repetitions, prolongations, and hesitations as one speaks.

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Chapter 9

Vocabulary Page 2

Nature versus nurture: Controversy concerning how much of a person’s ability is related to sociocultural influences (nurture) as opposed to genetic factors (nature).

Cultural-familial intellectual disabilities: Intellectual disabilities that may be attributable to both sociocultural and genetic factors.

Biomedical factors Biologic processes, such as genetic disorders or nutrition, which can cause intellectual disabilities or other disabilities.

Chromosomal abnormalities Defects or damage in chromosomes that carry genetic material and play a central role in inherited characteristics.

Trisomy 21 The most common type of Down’s syndrome in which the chromosomal pairs on the 21st pair have an extra chromosome; also called nondisjunction.

Williams syndrome A rare genetic disease that occurs once in every 20,000 births and is characterized by an absence of genetic materials on the seventh pair of chromosomes.

Fragile X syndrome A condition involving damage to the chromosome structure, which appears as a breaking or splitting at the end of the X chromosome.

Metabolic disorders The body’s inability to process (metabolize) substances that can become poisonous and damage the central nervous system.

Phenylketonuria (PKU) A disorder in which an infant cannot digest a substance found in many foods, including milk; may cause intellectual disabilities if left untreated.

Galactosemia A disorder causing an infant to have difficulty in processing lactose. The disorder may cause intellectual disabilities and other problems.

Neurofibromatosis An inherited disorder resulting in tumors of the skin and other tissue (such as the brain).

Tuberous sclerosis Birth defect related to intellectual disabilities in about 66 percent of the cases and characterized by tumors on many organs.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)Damage caused to the fetus by the mother’s consumption of alcohol.

Behavioral factors Behaviors, such as dangerous activities or maternal substance abuse, which can cause intellectual disabilities or other disabilities.

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Vocabulary Page 3

Maternal infection Infection in a mother during pregnancy, sometimes having the potential to injure the unborn child

Congenital rubella German measles contracted by a mother during pregnancy, which can cause intellectual disabilities, deafness, blindness, and other neurological problems.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A virus that reduces immune system function and has been linked to AIDS.

Toxoplasmosis An infection caused by protozoa carried in raw meat and fecal material.

Anticonvulsants Medication prescribed to control seizures (convulsions).

Prematurity Infants delivered before 37 weeks from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period.

Low birth weight A weight of 5½ pounds (2,500 grams) or less at birth

Encephalitis An inflammation of brain tissue that may damage the central nervous system.

Anoxia A lack of oxygen that may result in permanent damage to the brain.

Anencephaly A condition in which the person has a partial or complete absence of cerebral tissue.

Hydrocephalus An excess of cerebrospinal fluid, often resulting in enlargement of the head and pressure on the brain, which may cause intellectual disabilities.

Head Start A federally funded preschool program for students with disadvantages to give them “a head start” prior to elementary school.

Infant stimulation An array of visual, auditory, and physical stimuli programs to promote infant development.

Assistive technology Devices such as computers, hearing aids, wheelchairs, and other equipment that help individuals adapt to the natural settings of home, school, and family.

Direct instruction Teaching academic subjects through precisely sequenced lessons involving drill, practice, and immediate feedback.

Sheltered workshop A segregated vocational training and employment setting for people with disabilities

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Supported employment Jobs for the severely disabled who will need continuous support, and for whom competitive jobs have traditionally not been possible.

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Chapter 10 Notes

Communication Disorders

1. Identify four ways in which speech, language, and communication are interrelated.

· Both speech and language form part, but not all, of communication.

· Some components of communication involve language but not speech.

· Some speech does not involve language.

· The development of communication—language and speech—overlap to some degree

2. Explain how language delay and language disorder differ

· In language delay, the sequence of development is intact, but the rate is interrupted.

· In language disorder, the sequence of development is interrupted.

3. Identify three factors that are thought to cause language disorders.

· Defective or deficient sensory systems.

· Neurological damage occurring through physical trauma or accident

· Deficient or disrupted learning opportunities during language development

4. Describe how treatment approaches for language disorders generally differ for children and for adults.

· Treatment for children generally addresses initial acquisition or learning of language.

· Treatment for adults involves relearning or reacquiring language function.

5. Cite three factors that are thought to cause stuttering.

· Learned behavior, emotional problems, and neurological problems can contribute to stuttering.

· Some research has suggested that brain organization differs in people who stutter.

· People who stutter may learn their speech patterns as an out-growth of the normal non fluency evident when speech development first occurs.

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Chapter 10 Notes

Communication Disorders

6 Identify two ways in which learning theory and home environments are related to delayed speech

· The home environment may provide little opportunity to learn speech.

· The home environment may interfere with speech development, as when speaking is punished.

7. Identify two reasons why some professionals are reluctant to treat functional articulation disorders in young schoolchildren.

· Many articulation problems evident in young children are developmental in nature, so speech may improve “naturally” with age.

· Articulation problems are quite frequent among young children, and treatment resources are limited.

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Chapter 10 Notes


Phonology The system of speech sounds that an individual utters

Syntax The rules governing sentence structure, the way sequences of words are combined into phrases and sentences.

Morphology The form and internal structure of words.

Semantics The understanding of language, the component most directly concerned with meaning.

Pragmatics A component of language that represents the rules that govern the reason(s) for communicating.

Receptive language disorders Difficulties in comprehending what others say.

Expressive language disorders Difficulties in producing language.

Aphasia An acquired language disorder caused by brain damage and characterized by complete or partial impairment of language comprehension, formulation, and use

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