• Apply what you have learned about the ethical duties of medical professionals in your response.

  1. Please answer all three of the questions below. Be sure to answer each sub-question.
  2. Each answer should be approximately 600-800 words per answer.
  3. Only use course materials for this test. Please use in-text citations when you quote our course readings (Engelhardt, 68). A reference sheet is not needed for this activity.
  4. Remember that this test is graded, in part, on the quality of the reasons you give to defend and explain your answers. Think carefully about your answers and explain them clearly and thoroughly (though keep the word count in mind). Use quotes from the texts to help explain your answers.


  1. In their article “The Limits of Conscientious Objection – May Pharmacists Refuse to Fill Prescriptions for Emergency Contraception,” Cantor and Baum give multiple reasons in favor of – and against – a pharmacist’s right to object to dispensing emergency contraception (Plan B) to customers. In rural Alaska, sometimes one medical professional works within a 100 mile radius. Imagine a case in which Plan B is not locally available in a rural area in Alaska, but a local health clinic usually stocks in the medicine for those who request it. A new nurse practitioner, Tom, now works at the clinic and refuses to make Plan B available for religious reasons. He is usually the only one staffing the clinic. Another professional who will dispense the drug is rarely available, working for months at a time now at another clinic far away. a. Describe in detail a few of the best ethical reasons for believing that Tom has an ethical duty to dispense emergency contraception, Plan B, to clients who request it. b. What are few of the best ethical reasons against Tom having a duty to make emergency contraception available to those who request it.

c. Last, but not least (!), what do you think? Choose one central reason, on either side of the debate, and defend it in a paragraph. In defending your argument, imagine someone who would disagree with it. Offer reasons in your argument that would speak to the main concerns of an opponent. Think critically and use an example if it’s helpful, and do you best to choose a reason beyond those offered in Cantor and Baum’s essay.

Additional Points:

• In each point that you make, consider how it is relevant for ethics.

• Apply what you have learned about the ethical duties of medical professionals in your response.

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